DoD, combatant commanders (CCs), services and agencies have undertaken many efforts to address the mission areas of air and missile defense through mission needs statements, capstone requirements documents, operational requirements documents and operational concepts. Though each document has its unique utility, they do not address the overarching training required to conduct the global air and missile defense mission.
Integrated air and missile defense (IAMD) is defined as those operations (offensive, active defense, passive defense) taken by IAMD participants to prevent, defeat or minimize the effects of aerospace threats and to disrupt or destroy support-related infrastructure. As IAMD combines the sub-mission areas of theater air and missile defense, the guided missile division, and homeland air security, it is imperative that leaders, staff and operators train for their particular roles and responsibilities within both the IAMD mission area and sub-mission areas. Training for these roles can be categorized into three areas: command (leaders), planning (staff), and execution (operators), with emphasis placed on the role of jointness and interagency coordination.
The foundation for IAMD training must be the identification of the activities, tasks, tactics, techniques and procedures to be completed in order to accomplish given missions. These activities can be derived from a multitude of sources, including the universal Army and joint task lists, other service tasks lists, and mission essential task lists. Because this mission area is still relatively new, updates and additions to the aforementioned documents should be provided to ensure IAMD activities are completely recognized.
The IAMD commander must be trained in his roles and responsibilities to his staff and subordinate commanders: to provide intent and guidance, and ultimately to issue orders on the conduct of the mission. The commander will need training to improve his abilities to synthesize and understand the current IAMD tactical/operational/strategic situation, issue rules of engagement as they pertain to the mission, allocate forces and resources available to conduct global IAMD and analyze relevant intelligence.
Because of the dynamic, cross-area of responsibility (AOR) implications of global IAMD, the commander will need to understand how to coordinate among the various combatant commanders, with the component commanders within each combatant commanders’ area of responsibility, and with the agencies that are participating in the homeland air security aspect of global IAMD. The commander will need to train for various scenarios whereby the traditional combatant command, operational control, tactical control and supported and supporting command relationships change dynamically based on threat location, predicted impact point, and global IAMD resource availability.
Commanders at the highest levels should take advantage of the global IAMD training venues associated with large-scale exercises such as Ulchi Focus Lens, Joint Project Optic Windmill, Roving Sands, Foal Eagle, Joint Service Combat Identification Evaluation Test and Clear Skies. In addition, air and missile defense (AMD) wargames held at the Joint National Integration Center and Virtual Warfare Center provide excellent opportunities for AMD leaders to train and observe current and future global IAMD capabilities.
The training of IAMD operational staffs recognizes the need for a collaborative, centralized planning system at the strategic level. Centralized planning is essential for unity of effort, unity of command and efficient use of resources during decentralized execution in global operations. As such, staff training during the centralized planning process must expose planners to joint and interagency functions, and explain the implications of coordination across combatant commanders’ areas of responsibility. In addition, staff training will assist planners in understanding and analyzing global IAMD implications.
Adequate training will provide staffs with an understanding of how to develop and recommend command relationships and command authorities, targeting priorities, defended asset lists, apportionment and use of offensive and defensive global IAMD forces, detailed missile defense plans, courses of action and rules of engagement.
A key component of staff training will be the preparation of liaison officers (LNOs). Liaisons, as representatives of the IAMD commander to various U.S. and multinational military forces and governmental agencies, must learn the tasks, procedures and resources they will need to support accomplishment of the IAMD mission. Liaison tasks can be performed by individuals or staffs and are greatly enhanced through the use of automation tools and procedures. Such liaison training will teach the liaison officer how to coordinate actions, update/amend procedures, and test/validate the full range of interface activities between organizations.
Because of the complexity associated with planning the integration and synchronization of the mission areas (for example, active defense, passive defense, attack operations, and global intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and target acquisition) which support global IAMD plan development, staffs will need to be trained in the use of automated planning tools. Examples of these tools include the joint defensive planner, the air and missile defense workstation system, the area air defense commander module, the global command and control system and the joint operation planning and execution system. Staffs will also need to train on wargaming tools, such as the extended air defense simulation, the missile defense wargame and the commander’s analysis and planning simulation, to facilitate optimal course of action selection for incorporation into the global IAMD plan.
As the operators responsible for the conduct of the global IAMD mission, battle managers (watch officers, tactical directors, crew commanders, battle captains) must be well trained on a wide spectrum of tasks. Battle managers must know how to interpret the commander’s intent in carrying out the plan. They must know how to monitor the battlespace within and outside the AOR and must practice conducting battle operations and maintaining situational awareness. Battle managers must have enough knowledge about global IAMD capabilities to be able to assess the effectiveness of resources and to support dynamic planning.
Battle managers must be trained on executing defensive, offensive and passive defense operations in support of the IAMD mission. In the case of defensive operations, battle managers should recognize and be able to select the best available means to engage the incoming threat throughout its flight profile, including re-engagements. The battle manager is trained to perform threat evaluation and weapons assignment to accomplish this. Skilled battle managers will choose either the centralized or decentralized method of operations, recognizing such factors as the level of command interest, threat, current situation and involvement of multiple services or agencies. Battle managers must be trained in the use of automated battle management aids during engagement sequences.
The battle manager must also be trained to determine if there is an attack operations solution to respond to the air and missile threat. Through practice, the battle manager determines if the point of origin or other threat-related target (that is, infrastructure) is engageable through attack operations options. If so, the battle manager selects the best available attack operation option, including preplanned or dynamic targeting, and then monitors the attack engagement. After the attack, the battle manager performs a re-attack assessment and selects the best available re-attack option, if necessary. To fulfill this responsibility, battle managers will have to be well versed in offensive counterair operations.
Battle managers will have the responsibility to provide training on the procedures to alert forces, population centers and other assets to air and missile attacks. As they monitor the battlespace, battle managers must be trained in determining if enemy air and missile tracks are candidates for threat alerts, threat warnings, cueing or tracking. If so, they must be able to issue applicable alerts and warnings to affected areas. In addition, battle managers must know when to issue de-warnings after the threat has passed. Battle managers must be trained in providing to military, government and civilian authorities recommendations for additional passive defense measures, such as dispersal, hardening, cover and concealment, camouflage and nuclear, biological and chemical posture.
The battle manager’s training will ensure that reliable recommendations are provided to the commander on the conduct of the global IAMD warfight. Training must cover positioning or repositioning of resources, performing analysis on location accessibility, force protection, sensor coverage, weapons coverage, asset protection, post-engagement debris fall-out, communications ranges and logistics support. With practice and training, battle managers will be able to provide sound recommendations to the commander during execution of the global IAMD mission.
The training associated with conduct of the global IAMD mission spans a wide array of mission areas, geographies and participants. Training for commanders, staffs and operators must occur at all levels and should focus on the coordination, collaboration and synchronization required for successful command and control, planning and execution of global integrated air and missile defense.
MAJ. GEN. STANLEY E. GREEN is commanding general, U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center, Fort Bliss, Texas.